Saturday, January 29, 2011

January 29

"internet is TERRIBLY slow!"

--An Egyptian blogger; image from


As far as I can tell from Google Analytics [GA] and kind readers of this blog, the PDPBR is "firewalled" in mainland China. The PDPBR is, however, not "firewalled" (as far as can tell according to GA) in Iran.


(a) Headlines/Major Items

US-Egypt: Use Power Softly and Forget the Stick

Dominoes in Progress: Egypt and Yemen

The Revolution Will Not Be Tweeted...

Public Diplomacy and International Broadcasting

IIP Bureau Announces Changes To Strengthen Its International Information Programs and Products

Commodore Franchetti Expresses Gratitude to State Department for Pacific Partnership 2010 Assistance

Bipartisan Policy Center Launches Strategic Public Diplomacy Project Led by Former Ambassador James Glassman and Secretary Dan Glickman: National Security Initiative Aims to Transform U.S. Public Diplomacy for the 21st Century

Egyptian students visit: Four days include discussions, films

A remarkable, brilliant exercise in public diplomacy‎

Exhibiting Palestine

[Israel Project] Internships January 31 - February 4

Egyptian Diplomat Shares “Message of Peace” Through Songs

Public Diplomacy and International Politics: The Symbolic Constructs of Summits and International Radio News

Egypt cuts off internet from rest of the world, and now reports of blocked international broadcasting

Egypt's Revolution: Mubarak now has few good options for retaining power

Washington and Mr. Mubarak

Egypt protests: America's secret backing for rebel leaders behind uprising -- The American government secretly backed leading figures behind the Egyptian uprising who have been planning “regime change” for the past three years, The Daily Telegraph has learned

In the insultingly bad propaganda category...

Spotlight Again Falls on Web Tools and Change

In Egypt, should Internet access be an inalienable right?

Twitter co-founder: Freedom of expression is a human right

A new world disorder: Can Western liberal capitalism learn to coexist with other styles, like those of China, India and Brazil's swiftly developing economies? It can -- and it must

Propaganda Fail: China Pretends Top Gun Footage is Actual Military Excercise

(b) Summaries/other items

US-Egypt: Use Power Softly and Forget the Stick - Robert R. Gosende, James Ketterer, Global Engagement: "Today we need to urgently think through what political change in Egypt will mean for the U.S. To do so we will need to recognize Egypt’s centrality insofar as U.S. relations with the region are concerned. So much attention has been focused on Iraq over the past decade that it seems there is little else on the minds of U.S. policymakers. ... To think through the central challenge of the future of U.S./Egyptian relations, the President should convene a colloquium of experts who would gather immediately to advise him and Secretary Clinton on the road forward between Egypt and the U.S. and inferentially the region. ... [W]hat is needed now is for the U.S. to offer programs in real partnership and the promise of sustained value: educational and cultural exchanges that involve students, faculty, young political leaders, artists and others.

This is not just a nice thing to do, it is at the heart of how we can re-set a relationship between the American people and the Arab world. ... Ask most Egyptians who Mubarak’s chief sponsor is and they will say it is the US. Do you think, then, that they are brimming with good feelings toward the U.S. as they stand up against the batons and water guns of Mubarak’s security forces? But America’s universities, its culture and openness still garner great support in the Arab world. ... As the experts at State, the NSC and USAID gather to deliberate about next steps, the Department’s public diplomacy experts should have a seat at the table." Image from article: Protestors Gather in Tahrir Square, Cairo

Dominoes in Progress: Egypt and Yemen - "In the aftermath of the successful Tunisian protests, Egypt and Yemen have followed suit. Under thirty years of 'president' Mubarak, the Egyptian people faced a reduction in civil liberties and censorship; such as under the emergency laws. There was no freedom of assembly. ... If the U.S. wants to curb anti-Americanism, now is the time for us to step up and support the values which our nation is founded on.

President Obama made a reference to Tunisia and alluded to Egypt in his State of the Union speech, but more interaction and support of the Egyptian public could change minds about the U.S. throughout the Arab world; something that could be a big player. More public diplomacy is needed." Image from article

The Revolution Will Not Be Tweeted... - Yelena Osipova, Global Chaos: "[S]ocial networking helped to gain global attention and mobilize an army of supporters - internationally - who have advanced the cause of the Egyptian people. Whether it all will have an actual impact, however, is still a matter of question. ... I cannot but think of Gilboa's 'Nonstate Transnational Model' for public diplomacy and his 'Telediplomacy' paradigm: after all, Al Jazeera, a non-state actor, has taken up a cause that the U.S. itself had been so avidly promoting (i.e. human rights and Internet freedom), to advocate on behalf of the Egyptian people through real time news coverage. And it certainly did reach the global public. ... Al Jazeera challenged - outright - the message put out by the U.S. government (I think, rightly so), indirectly calling for it to live up to its own standards and keep to its promises. ... The reaction from the administration was slow and insufficient, especially at first.

In a sense, it was even disastrous when Joe Biden announced that he did not consider Mubarak a 'dictator'. Although everything else he said was very much in line with the message the administration stuck to all along, that one statement and the seemingly proud claim that he knows the Egypt's President well, certainly undercut America's public diplomacy effort on the issue. ... [U]nder the circumstances and given the context, it seems like there has been permanent damage done to U.S. public diplomacy, especially in the Middle East. ... [I]n this information age (which America so enthusiastically promotes), there can be no separation of audiences (be it domestic, or foreign), and with trending stories spreading like wildfire through social networking sites, the current public diplomacy will not only fail to achieve its objective, but it might just as well backfire." Image from article

Public Diplomacy and International Broadcasting - Paul Rockower, Levantine: "Al-Jazeera is having an incredible run as it bounces from Tunisia to Egypt, and through the Palestine Papers. Al-J is a pd force like no other media actor on the planet."

IIP Bureau Announces Changes To Strengthen Its International Information Programs and Products - Remarks, U.S. State Department: "The Department of State’s Bureau of International Information Programs (IIP) today announced a series of changes to strengthen its ability to support American foreign policy goals and national security interests through information products and engagement activities. 'There has been a breathtaking revolution in the global communications environment, and we must keep pace with it,' explained IIP Coordinator Dawn McCall.

'These changes will enable the Bureau of International Information Programs to quickly and effectively reach out to people around the globe in support of American foreign policy priorities.' The Bureau of International Information Programs produces programs and products that inform and engage foreign audiences, including print publications, videos, web-based materials, and speaker programs. It employs 280 government personnel in Washington, D.C. and overseas.' ... McCall noted that the changes will be accomplished with IIP’s current budget and number of government employees. 'The Department of State’s 2010 Strategic Framework for Public Diplomacy established a clear mission, set of priorities, and guidelines for American public diplomacy,' said Judith A. McHale, Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs. 'These changes to the Bureau of International Information Programs will significantly strengthen IIP’s ability to carry out this critical mission.'” McCall image from

Commodore Franchetti Expresses Gratitude to State Department for Pacific Partnership 2010 Assistance - "The Department of State is coming to realize the tremendous potential of the Pacific Partnership program, begun by the U.S. Navy following the devastating Asian tsunami of December 2004. On January 18, Commodore Lisa Franchetti, mission commander of Pacific Partnership 2010, arrived at the Department to brief Assistant Secretary of State Kurt Campbell on the program and how valuable it is to State, and our partner and mission countries in the Pacific region. She also thanked Campbell for the Department’s support, both from U.S. Embassies and by the East Asian and Pacific Affairs Bureau’s providing a dedicated Foreign Service Liaison Officer (FSLO) to the mission.

Commodore Franchetti also presented briefings to relevant officers in both State and USAID. Commodore Franchetti explained that Pacific Partnership is not just a U.S. Navy port visit, or even a medical mission. It is an annual mission involving hundreds of planners for up to a year, and emphasizes six areas of commitment: onboard surgeries (even-numbered years); medical and dental services; engineering/ renovation projects; training and biomedical equipment repair; veterinary training and services; and public diplomacy-community relations. ... -- U.S. Department of State." Uncaptioned mage from article

Bipartisan Policy Center Launches Strategic Public Diplomacy Project Led by Former Ambassador James Glassman and Secretary Dan Glickman: National Security Initiative Aims to Transform U.S. Public Diplomacy for the 21st Century - PRNewswire-USNewswire: "This week the Bipartisan Policy Center's (BPC) National Security Initiative launched a new project designed to re-conceptualize America's public diplomacy and outreach to audiences around the world. Co-chaired by Ambassador James Glassman and Secretary Dan Glickman,

the Strategic Public Diplomacy Project seeks to develop recommendations on ways to tightly integrate public diplomacy with foreign policy to advance U.S. strategic interests in a new media age. The BPC believes U.S. policymakers should treat public diplomacy as a vital part of our foreign policy toolbox, on par with traditional diplomacy and military power. ... The BPC believes a strong, strategic public diplomacy program can play a significant role in achieving U.S. foreign policy objectives. According to project co-chair Ambassador James Glassman, Executive Director of the George W. Bush Institute and formerly Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs, 'One important task of public diplomacy must be pushing back and undermining the ideology behind violent extremism, while explaining and advocating free alternatives and diverting young people from following a path that leads to violent extremism.' ... Over the course of the year, the project will: examine lessons learned from prior public diplomacy efforts; define the strategic uses and dimensions of public diplomacy; determine pressing short- and medium-term strategic challenges that public diplomacy can help address; and recommend specific proposals on how public diplomacy programming can be better targeted to audiences in particular countries, such as Pakistan, advance U.S. interests, and how best to engage the private sector for maximum impact around the world." Glassman image from; Glickman image from

World Economic Forum Unveils Tired “Solution” to Global Hunger: Statement by Wenonah Hauter, Executive Director of Food & Water Watch - “'Today, USAID, Unilever and Monsanto unveiled their ‘Realizing a New Vision for Agriculture’ proposal at the World Economic Forum in Davos. 'There is nothing new in this so-called ‘vision’. It comes from the same interests that have set agricultural policy for decades, which has done nothing to demonstrate hunger alleviation around the globe. 'This announcement touting ‘public-private partnerships’ is about the bottom line of these companies that have a stranglehold on our government agencies, including USAID. It’s an exercise in public diplomacy, and reaffirmation of status quo—not a new vision for development.['] 'Public-private partnerships have yet to demonstrate their effectiveness for creating change on the ground. What’s needed is a comprehensive rethinking of our global food system, one that supports farmers, rural communities, and true food security—not global agribusiness.'”

Egyptian students visit: Four days include discussions, films - Diane Ramirez, The Rice Thresher: "A group of Egyptian students from the American University in Cairo's Center for American Studies and Research visited Rice last week with the goal of building social, cultural and political links between the United States and the Middle East. The Public Diplomacy and Global Policymaking program at the Baker Institute

arranged the visit in conjunction with 10 Rice students who visited Cairo last summer." See also. Image from

A remarkable, brilliant exercise in public diplomacy‎ - M. Radoshitzky, Jerusalem Post: Much has been written and said about the recent Al-Jazeera leaks. ... [T]hree points are worth considering. First, the Al-Jazeera leaks have been a remarkable and brilliant exercise in public diplomacy. For Israelis, no better testimony exists to the fact that the Palestinian negotiating team (which, unlike the Israeli counterpart, is comprised of the same core people since the Oslo days) is a serious partner with real and known red lines, creativity and flexibility and a great will to see this conflict solved. ... Second, there is a tremendous gap between what goes on in the negotiating room, what has been said and discussed in these rooms for years and decades and what we are told by our leaders goes on in there. ... Third, the concept of a 'package deal' is one of the keys to solving the conflict."

Exhibiting Palestine - Paul Rockower, CPD Blog, USC Center on Public Diplomacy: "The Jerusalem Fund is a non-profit organization located in Washington, D.C. that conducts Palestinian educational, cultural and public diplomacy. ... Founded in 1977, the Jerusalem Fund conducts its various forms of Palestinian public diplomacy through its three respective programs: The Palestine Center, The Gallery, and The Humanitarian Link. ... Public and cultural diplomacy is successful as a form of iconoclasm that demolishes previously held images and forces audiences to re-imagine prior notions. In this regard, the Jerusalem Fund carries out meaningful Palestinian public diplomacy by using cultural diplomacy to break down American stereotypes towards Palestinians and the Middle East. I only wish such dialogue was conducted with Israelis, and vice-versa, but that remains for a different discussion."

Internships January 31 - February 4 - Monday Memo: "The Israel Project's (TIP) Media fellows Program is looking for students to participate in their summer fellowship. The program is open to undergraduate, graduate students and recent graduates who want to enter professions in journalism, foreign policy or Israel advocacy.

Fellows will attend a series of educational workshops with leading journalists, pollsters, activists, public and media relations specialists and public diplomacy professionals. Fellows will also have the opportunity to work one-on-one with TIPS's professional staff of former journalists and communications specialists." Image from

Egyptian Diplomat Shares “Message of Peace” Through Songs - Leroy M. Sonpon, III, Liberian Daily Observer: "'To the dream of being at peace with yourself and in harmony with others, to love and be loved, and to be happy without hurting others, that is the central theme in peaceful and positive human relations. But it is never easy, as it partially lies in all of what is said, but more in what is unsaid[.]' The foregoing is part of one of the lyrics in Dr. Mohammed Kazem's songs,

presented before an impressive and crowded audience last Tuesday, January 26, in the Cecil Dennis' Auditorium, at the Foreign Ministry. The celebrated song writer, songster and musician, who is also an Egyptian Diplomat, drew inspiration and strength from the human experience, fostering synergy between diplomacy and music, in the framework of a public diplomacy initiative 'In Search of Understanding,' to stress what is shared and common among the peoples of the world. ... Musician Mohammed Kazem is a diplomat and counselor at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Cairo, Egypt. He holds a PhD in international relations and public diplomacy." Kazem image from

Public Diplomacy and International Politics: The Symbolic Constructs of Summits and International Radio News - "This book examines international radio news coverage of the four superpower summit meetings between Soviets and Americans from 1987 to 1990.

It concentrates on the symbolic constructs used by radio services to report about the summits, including their treatments of the two superpowers, their leaders, and their perspectives as recorded in interviews, press conferences and releases, joint communiques, and briefings. The study assesses the degree of success enjoyed by each of the superpowers in directing the nature of international news coverage, particularly the public relations battle between Mikhail Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan."

Public Relations Division 2010 Abstracts - "Factors Contributing to Anti-Americanism Among People Abroad: The Frontlines Perspective of U.S. Public Diplomats • Kathy Fitzpatrick, Quinnipiac University; alice kendrick, Southern Methodist University; Jami Fullerton, Oklahoma State University • This study examined the views of U.S. public diplomats

on factors that contribute to anti-American attitudes among people abroad. The purpose was to gain a better understanding of the most significant causes of anti-Americanism through the first-hand experiences of the men and women who have served on the front lines of U.S. public diplomacy and to consider the implications for U.S. public diplomacy going forward. A factor analysis revealed four underlying dimensions of anti-Americanism, which were labeled Information, Culture, Policy and Values. The public diplomats rated the Policy factor as the most significant, followed by the Information factor, the Culture factor and the Values factor." Image from

International Exchange Student Coordinator (Chattanooga) - "Contribute to greater international understanding by offering exchange students the chance to realize their dream of attending an American high school for an academic year. Exchange students learn through experience about living in America while their host families and schools benefit by learning first hand about the customs and perspectives of the student in their care. Join the staff of The Laurasian Institution (TLI) in creating the very best exchange environment for both students and families. Take pride in working with colleagues who share your commitment to quality exchange. Benefit from the flexibility of setting your own schedules and time commitments. Selection of quality host schools and host families is key to achieving the program's educational, cross-cultural, and public diplomacy goals, including helping the exchange student achieve familiarity with life in the U.S. and better understand American culture."

Maintaining Relations: Making Or Breaking of a Relation Depends on YOU -

"Examples show that people who are alone can be happy and are left alone in most of the dealings in daily life. This concept brings in the concept of public diplomacy, where relations are maintained between states. But maintaining a healthy relationship is not that easy." Image from

Weiji Hou global diplomatic decryption times - "[I]f future foreign politicians, diplomats, journalists, civil society members and U.S. diplomats spoke during a period of time the name will be on the WikiLeaks network, then no one is willing to say anything in the U.S. diplomatic words? If the loss of such informal diplomatic channels, American foreign in the end how to do it? Also asked, after WikiLeaks foreign countries in the world at the end do? ... More important, these 25 million documents in the original, inevitably reveal the final, that is, completely destroyed the

system of annual U.S. foreign countries, where the establishment of diplomats, experts, journalists, circles NGO of people rely on – the so-called 'last three feet' diplomatic circles. Hou decryption weiji circle was to remedy the trust, you can only do this kind of 'public diplomacy' more transparent. However, this can take the time to do in the West, but in non-Western societies, is quite far to achieve: freedom of expression is the basis for a more transparent environment for foreign affairs." Image from


Summaries/all items

Egypt cuts off internet from rest of the world, and now reports of blocked international broadcasting - Kim Andrew Elliott reporting on International Broadcasting

Egypt's Revolution: Mubarak now has few good options for retaining power - Review & Outlook, Wall Street Journal: Secretary of State Hillary Clinton is right to call for the government to restrain the police and stop blocking the Internet, but it doesn't help when Vice President Joe Biden denies the obvious fact that Mr. Mubarak is a "dictator."

The post-Mubarak era is coming one way or another, and the U.S. can't be seen as the authoritarian's last friend. Image from

Washington and Mr. Mubarak - Editorial, New York Times: The administration struggled to get its public message right this week.

Egypt protests: America's secret backing for rebel leaders behind uprising -- The American government secretly backed leading figures behind the Egyptian uprising who have been planning “regime change” for the past three years, The Daily Telegraph has learned -

The US government has previously been a supporter of Mr Mubarak’s regime. But the leaked documents show the extent to which America was offering support to pro-democracy activists in Egypt while publicly praising Mr Mubarak as an important ally in the Middle East. Image from

In the insultingly bad propaganda category... - Lenin's Tomb: This in the Daily Telegraph, more for the spin than the unremarkable 'disclosure’: Here is the secret document sent from the US Embassy in Cairo to Washington disclosing the extent of American support for the protesters behind the Egypt uprising.."As you'll discover upon looking at the document, the 'extent of American support' for these protesters is nil. The document is a State Department memo describing, in terms dripping with condescension and contempt,

the claims of a coopted member of a pro-US 'April 6' group who is obviously on the outside of the opposition mainstream and who they regard as a bit of a Walter Mitty. The US supplied Mubarak and his security forces with at least $1.5bn last year. Egypt is the second largest recipient of US overseas aid, not only in the region but in the world. This is mostly military aid, used primarily for internal security. The weapons being used against protesters, which have killed dozens – an estimated 95 people - so far, are produced in and supplied by the United States. Image from article

Spotlight Again Falls on Web Tools and Change – Scott Shane, New York Times: Repressive regimes around the world may have fallen behind their opponents in recent years in exploiting new technologies — not unexpected when aging autocrats face younger, more tech-savvy opponents. But in Minsk and Moscow, Tehran and Beijing, governments have begun to climb the steep learning curve and turn the new Internet tools to their own, antidemocratic purposes. The countertrend has sparked a debate over whether the conventional wisdom that the Internet and social networking inherently tip the balance of power in favor of democracy is mistaken. A new book, “The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom,” by a young Belarus-born American scholar, Evgeny Morozov,

has made the case most provocatively, describing instance after instance of strongmen finding ways to use new media to their advantage. Widney Brown, senior director of international law and policy at Amnesty International, said the popular networking services, like most technologies, are politically neutral. “There’s nothing deterministic about these tools — Gutenberg’s press, or fax machines or Facebook,” Ms. Brown said. “They can be used to promote human rights or to undermine human rights.” This is the point of Mr. Morozov, 26, a visiting scholar at Stanford. In “The Net Delusion,” he presents an answer to the “cyberutopians” who assume that the Internet inevitably fuels democracy. He coined the term “spinternet” to capture the spin applied to the Web by governments that are beginning to master it. See also John Brown, "What's important, what's happening, and what's public diplomacy," Huffington Post (July 26, 2010). Morozov image from

In Egypt, should Internet access be an inalienable right? - Monica Hesse, Washington Post: The most recent events in Egypt caused some to ponder a question that, on its face, sounds ludicrous: Has society reached the point at which Internet access is a basic human right? Is this public outcry just 21st-century indignation - one born of a world where "social networking" is nearly always something that happens in front of a screen? Only in a land of First World concerns could the lack of Internet access be considered a violation of basic rights. They have no bread? Let them eat Google. Via WC.

Twitter co-founder: Freedom of expression is a human right - Twitter's Biz Stone argued that freedom of expression is a human right in a post on the company's blog Friday, coinciding with Egypt's blackout of the Internet and cellphone service. "Our goal is to instantly connect people everywhere to what is most meaningful to them.

For this to happen, freedom of expression is essential," the company co-founder said in the post, titled The Tweets Must Flow. Image from

A new world disorder: Can Western liberal capitalism learn to coexist with other styles, like those of China, India and Brazil's swiftly developing economies? It can -- and it must - Timothy Garton Ash, Western capitalism survives, but limping, wounded and carrying a heavy load of debt, inequality, demography, neglected infrastructure, social discontent and unrealistic expectations. Meanwhile, other variants of capitalism — Chinese, Indian, Russian, Brazilian — are surging ahead, exploiting the advantages of backwardness, and their economic dynamism is rapidly being translated into political power. The result? Not a unipolar world, converging on a single model of liberal democratic capitalism, but a no-polar world, diverging toward many different national versions of often illiberal capitalism. Not a new world order but a new world disorder — fractured, overheated, pregnant with future conflicts. We in the West must put our own houses in order. Physician, heal thyself. The most important steps we can take for our influence abroad are those we take at home.

Taliban Propaganda Watch (RC South) – 290120UTC Jan 11 - Blog

Propaganda Fail: China Pretends Top Gun Footage is Actual Military Excercise - Footage that Chinese state TV officials may have tried to pass off as the results of a recent military exercise

is probably stolen from of one of the dog fight scenes in Top Gun. Image from article

Art Of Soviet Propaganda - Cited in John Brown, Notes and Essays: Contains fascinating samples of Soviet propaganda posters.

Image from original cited article

Roman exhibition is taster of Carlisle's new gallery‎ - Pam McClounie, News & Star: A taster of the new gallery can be experienced from today with the touring exhibition The Eagles Have Landed. The exhibition looks at the Roman occupation of Northern England. It has been created by the team of archaeological experts at Tullie House with help from Hadrian’s Wall Heritage.

It explores themes such as Propaganda and Spin, and Shock and Awe, telling stories of the Roman advancement and occupation. Image from


"As so often in history, hubris was followed by nemesis."

--Timothy Garton Ash, regarding how the West squandered its late 20th century victory.

"In one of the novels by the late Egyptian novelist and Nobel Laureate Naguib Mahfouz, a pharaoh is told by his lovely mistress Rabudis of rumors of pending rebellion, of popular disaffection. 'And they say the priests are a powerful group with control over the hearts and the minds of the people.' But he smiles and answers. 'But I am the stronger.' 'What of the anger of the people my lord,' she asks?

'It will calm down when they see me on my chariot.'"

--Fouad Ajami, "Rebellion in the Land of the Pharaohs: A man who places himself at the helm for three decades inevitably becomes the target of all the realm's discontents," Wall Street Journal; image from

"Some futurists have recently begun to suggest that the Internet and its assorted devices are not merely tools for human use, but rather the future of human evolution. They are the caches we use - via Facebook photos, blog entries, saved Google chats - to store memories and information - they are the appendages that humans will use to expand our brains. If you subscribe to this rather extreme philosophy, then denial of Internet is not only denial of communication but a denial of modern selfhood."

--Monica Hesse, "In Egypt, should Internet access be an inalienable right?," Washington Post


--From Creepy Children's Playgrounds (in Russia)


Free Media Online said...

Great image to illustrate the blocking of the Internet in Egypt.

The same thing will happen in Russia and China if there are major domestic protests or a major international conflict pitting these regimes against the U.S.

Yet the U.S. Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG) -- and particularly the Voice of America -- continue to push for Internet-only program delivery strategy instead of using a multimedia approach, which would include satellite TV and long-distance radio. Both are far more secure than the Internet to deliver news in case of crisis. Plus, a regularly scheduled satellite TV or radio broadcast has a far greater impact in an emergency and during more normal times.

Also worth noting is that the Voice of America does not produce any programs in Arabic. They were terminated by the BBG in favor of private contractor-run Alhurra TV and Radio Sawa. Could these stations, which in the past broadcast statements of Holocaust deniers, be counted upon to accurately reflect what the U.S. (the administration, Congress, American people) think and say about the Middle East? One wonders.

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