Wednesday, March 9, 2011
"Those who would term 'public diplomacy' as 'propaganda' don't especially understand either subject."
--Blogger extraordinaire Paul Rockower
Your PDPBR compiler is currently working on a lengthy article about the American diplomat Edmund Gullion, the person generally acknowledged to have given the term "public diplomacy" its late-twentieth century meaning. Any information on Ambassador Gullion would be much appreciated; firstname.lastname@example.org. Please scroll down for a key quotation on public diplomacy by Gullion.
Clinton to Congress: We are Losing the Information War - Helle Dale, "News flash: 'We are in an information war, and we’re losing that war.' This source for this conclusion was not one of the at least 15 reports on U.S. public diplomacy that have appeared over the last decade; it was Secretary of State Hillary Clinton speaking before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on March 2. For years, the State Department has been in denial, and Clinton’s admission of failure is therefore particularly welcome. Maybe we can now have an adult conversation about what needs to be done to reverse the decline in America’s standing overseas. ... The State Department itself has invested heavily in social media and declared Internet freedom a policy priority.
The implementation of this policy, however, has been controversial, mainly because State has been slow in disbursing $30 million appropriated by Congress for Internet freedom projects. 'Most people still get their news from TV and radio,' Clinton said. This is entirely true, which makes it hard to understand why the BBG [Broadcasting Board of Governors] in February stated that it would end VOA radio and television transmission to China by next October, a decision that has caused joy in Beijing and great consternation among VOA employees and Chinese dissidents." On the BBG, see. Image from
On day of Sec. Clinton's internet freedom speech, Sen. Lugar calls for anti-censorship funds to be moved from State to BBG (updated) - Kim Andrew Elliott reporting on International Broadcasting.
How Obama Can Help Iran's Opposition: America should reinforce to Green Movement activists that their cause is just and the world is watching - Ilan Berman, Wall Street Journal: "Washington should redouble its own outreach to Iran's captive population. America's public broadcasting is already quite popular. By one estimate, outlets such as Voice of America's Persian News Network, Radio Farda and associated websites cumulatively reach nearly a third of Iran's adult population every week. But serious systemic problems—from self-censorship by U.S. government reporters to a failure to frame sensitive political issues properly—have left this outreach devoid of much meaning. That is a major failure. More penetrating coverage of the long-term viability of the country's opposition and the corrupt nature of the country's clerical class could have a substantial impact on Iran's internal discourse, reinforcing to democrats that their cause is just and that the world is watching. For that, however, the White House will need to clearly and consistently articulate its support for political pluralism in the Islamic Republic. Once it does, it will need to enforce that preference throughout the vast and often unaccountable bureaucracy that manages U.S. public diplomacy, so that the Iranian people can understand it too."
Are Sanctions Contributing to or Impeding a Diplomatic Solution to the Iranian Nuclear Puzzle? - armscontrolnow.org: "There is indeed a plausible case to be made that the U.S. administration’s policy of engaging with Iran could have benefited from a more balanced approach between incentives and sanctions.
For a number of reasons including domestic pressures, the public diplomacy dimension of this policy in particular has often placed overt emphasis on the cost of Iranian defiance rather than the rewards of engagement." Image from
Medvedev, Biden to discuss ABM, Russia’s accession to WTO, Libya - "Russian President Dmitry Medvedev will receive visiting U.S. Vice-President Joseph Biden at his presidential residence in Gorki, the Moscow Region, on Wednesday.
The U.S. high-ranking official arrived on a three-day working visit in Moscow on Tuesday evening. ... 'High on the agenda of the negotiations between Medvedev and Biden are Russia’s accession to the World Trade Organization,' Medvedev’s press secretary Natalia Timakova told Itar-Tass. U.S. Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy Judith MacHale said on Monday that the Obama administration gives priority to Russia’s accession to the WTO and does all to abolish the Jackson-Vanik Amendment this year." Image from
The Unrealism of the Russian Reset - Ted R. Bromund, Commentary: "Russia has nothing to contribute to a serious discussion of press freedom, and it is an insult to the concept and to the First Amendment to pretend that it does. But yet we are devoting what likely amounts to several million dollars of public diplomacy funding to engage in the farce of pretending that the U.S. and Russia can have a meaningful 'dialogue' on the subject. Worse, the topics for this 'dialogue' appear to have been selected with a view to outraging common sense. There’s the 'Business of Media' — which in Putin’s Russia is to be controlled by the state. There’s the 'Evolving Profession of Journalism' — that must be hard in Russia, given the regularity with which troublesome Russian journalists end up dead. The fact that the 'dialogue' is part of the administration’s non-strategy for Internet freedom — note that, as I predicted, the U.S. and Russia will be discussing 'New Media Technologies' and 'the freedom to connect' — just adds insult to injury."
Against Dogmatism on Gender Imperatives and Gender Differences - Binoy Kampmark, CounterPunch: "March 8 is a contradictory day in the calendar of events. International Women’s Day comes with its usual, painstakingly rehearsed formulae ... . US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton was at the forefront this year, launching the 100th anniversary of the day. On this occasion, Clinton was launching the ‘100 Women Initiative: Empowering Women and Girls through international Exchanges’ (Voice of America, Mar 7). The program will run for three weeks, featuring attendees from 92 countries in a US sponsored program. The usual vague, flattering pronouncements follow on any such occasion. Clinton: ‘In Sudan, Aisha Humad, where’s Aisha? Aisha is empowering women by teaching them to stand up for themselves and to stand up for their own rights.’
With the most serious of events and dilemmas come the most banal responses in solving them. There are surely few less meaningful terms than the word ‘empower’, whatever the social work jargon on the subject might dictate. The real interest came after the sugary, salutary speeches were concluded. Questions asked of Undersecretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs Judith McHale, Assistant Secretary of Education Ann Stock and Clinton’s own chief of staff Cheryl Mills caught them off guard. A Latin American woman (Voice of America News remains, as ever, generic) questioned whether the United States was even ready for a female president. Mills answered that the country was ‘more than willing to support women in a leadership role and more than willing to actually see a woman as their leader’ though she had to admit that ‘that final hurdle’ had to be crossed." See also. Image from
Maria Otero Represents US at Youth Reception in Nigeria - newsblaze.com: On a visit to Nigeria, Maria Otero, the U.S. Under Secretary for Democracy and Global Affairs spoke at a Youth Reception at the Ambassador's Residence in Abuja, Nigeria. ['] Thank you Ambassador McCulley for hosting this important gathering. It's a distinct pleasure to be here with all of you for the first ever Youth Reception at the Ambassador's Residence. ... Last August, President Obama hosted the President's Forum on Youth African Leaders in Washington which included three delegates from Nigeria. At the State Department, we've launched a Youth Task Force, which I'm proud to co-chair with Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy Judith McHale. We are exploring the many ways that the US government engages youth on our foreign policy priorities, and crafting a strategy to ensure that we are maximizing the potential of youth as leaders in their communities around the world.[']"
2007 Cable Calls Mercosur "Anti-American" - Hemispheric Brief: "[A] cable from Chile (released in December 2010) [is] about the need to counter Chavez’s influence in the sub-region. That one, written by then-US ambassador in Chile, Craig Kelly in June 2007, called for a Southern Cone strategy that could counter Chavez through
'a more muscular USG presence in the region,' the promotion of 'successful alternatives to Chavez’s brand of socialism,' and a strong public diplomacy that 'makes loud and clear' the US message of 'democracy, freer trade and investment.'” Chavez image from
VOA stringer in Angola sentenced to one year in prison after report about top judicial official - Kim Andrew Elliott reporting on International Broadcasting
NATO official calls for greater role of women in global affairs - Samuel Kubani, RIA Novosti: A NATO representative called on Tuesday for women to be allowed greater representation in international negotiations and conflict resolution. 'Women still remain underrepresented at all political levels,' Assistant Deputy Secretary General for Public Diplomacy Dr. Stephanie Babst said
at a video news conference. 'They [women] represent roughly speaking half of the world population but less than one fifth of the positions in national governments and very often they are excluded from negotiating tables of conflicts to be resolved,' she added. The conference, which focused on women's role in global peace and security, marks International Women's Day, a major national holiday in Russia. Image from article
Israeli Hasbara Efforts Combat Apartheid Analogy - algemeiner.com: "During the past week, Israeli Apartheid Week (IAW) an organized effort by anti Israel NGOs and NGO activists held events in cities and on college campuses, presenting disinformation intended to vilify and delegitimize the State of Israel. ... A confluence of events in 2010-2011 removed a significant amount of extremists’ ability to foment anti-Israel activity. ... Well before the 2010 protests began, the government of Israel, recognizing the media and opinion challenges facing Israel enhanced its hasbera (public relations) efforts. One program developed under the direction of Yuli Edelstein, Minister of Public Diplomacy and the Diaspora, was the creation of the “I Am the Face of Israel” program, an outreach effort bringing a diverse group of young Israeli professionals to college campuses across North America.
Shay Attius, of the Public Diplomacy Department of the Ministry of Public Diplomacy and Diaspora accompanied one contingent in New York. The typical – that is to say, totally diverse – group of Israelis on an American sojourn included architect Hadas Yossef, entrepreneur Ariel HaLevi, communications portfolio manager Raneen Khoury and marketing manager Nadav Peretz. Ethiopian, Ashkenazi, Israeli Arab, Sephardic, men and women, representatives of multiple real world professions – all were identical – that is, to the extent of their white shirts with bright blue lettering proclaiming, back and front, 'I am…the face of Israel.'”
Showcasing Israel's Diversity - Steve Lipman, The Jewish Week: "The Israelis, members of various minority groups — a black, an Arab, a lesbian and a gay man — talked about Israel’s multiracial, multicultural society during the short ride through Manhattan. ... Their visits coincided with the seventh annual Israel Apartheid Week, which, as part of the Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions movement, has spread since its founding in Toronto in 2005 to some 55 cities around the world and a dozen American campuses.
The Israelis — the 16 brought here by Israel at Heart included 15 natives of Ethiopia and a Muslim-born native of Darfur — all volunteered to come the to the U.S. to tell their lives’ stories, which they see as a refutation to the claim that Israel is a racist, apartheid state. Appearing on campuses before friendly, pro-Israel audiences as well as hostile, anti-Israel audiences, including at Columbia University and Baruch College here, members of the delegations said they encountered less animosity than they had expected, and were not physically attacked." Image from article
Spotlight on UN Hypocrisy Regarding Qaddafi - Gil Ronen, Arutz Sheva: "Israel's UN ambassador in the past few years, Prof. Gabriella Shalev, was considered a less than stellar diplomat, and it took the leaders of the Jewish state several months of bickering to decide upon her successor, Ron Prosor. Israel's public diplomacy effort has been branded "a joke" by sympathetic critics like Melanie Phillips. It is debatable whether public relations or diplomacy could make much difference in the anti-Zionist UN climate, dominated by Arab and third world countries who identify with Islam."
Be at least commercially competitive against Schengen - Letter to the Editor, Michael Emerson, Financial Times: "I welcome Michael Skapinker’s column 'Britain’s passport to attracting more visitors' (Comment, March 1) that tries to knock some sense into the awful
British visa policy . ... As already pointed out, the UK is hurting its tourism, business and academic interests, and more broadly developing a negative public diplomacy brand." Image from
A good review for China's CCTV-9 documentary channel, but English-language CCTV News "a work in progress" - Kim Andrew Elliott reporting on International Broadcasting: "I don't think we need to worry about China's soft power as long as its international broadcasting consists of a bewildering jumble of brands. (As an employee of U.S. international broadcasting, I am familiar with bewildering jumbles of brands.)"
Diplomatic Moves with Global Community in Mind - Watanabe Hirotaka, japanechoweb.jp: "We cannot expect Sino-Japanese ties to unfold in the same way as China’s relationship with Europe. Japan and China are on relatively close terms, with both nations enjoying the benefits of a win-win game in the economic sphere. Culturally speaking, the two nations have long had much in common. The nations’ diplomats have been working to deepen the bilateral relationship through mutual political trustbuilding, human and cultural exchange, and the formation of mutually beneficial cooperative ties. On the political level, though, Japan’s government could be promoting more cooperation aimed at creating the
Chinese social infrastructure that will lead to democratization there. Europe may be seeking to make human rights and the rule of law solidly a part of China’s social fabric as one facet of its economic strategy. But no one can deny that these moves—along with cultural and public diplomacy measures—are still a legitimate way to contribute not just to change in China, but to the creation of a sense of global community." Image from
Implementation of FY2010 Local Staff Training in Japan - isria.com: "The training included lectures by the relevant bureaus and divisions of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (see note) and visits to the surrounding areas of Tokyo. ... Lectures by Ministry senior officials and employees on management, consular affairs, public diplomacy, Japan's foreign policy, international cooperation, international legal affairs, and other topics."
Another Ignorant Saudi Prince: Sultan Bin Fahd Berating Soccer Players After Loss, Video and English Transcripts - ikhras.com: "This is a video of the barely literate Prince Sultan Bin Fahd in what is called Saudi Arabia berating the Saudi team after a loss. He was the soccer Prince and head of the Saudi Football Federation. As you can see his relationship to sports and athleticism is not unlike the relationship of the Saudi Minister of Justice to fair trials and due process, or the Saudi Minister of the Interior to professional and legally regulated police methods and procedures, or the Saudi Minister of Information to a free media,
or the Saudi Minister of Foreign Affairs to International public diplomacy, or the Saudi Minister of Education to science and progress, or the Saudi Minister of Labor and Social Affairs to worker’s rights and women’s rights, or the Saudi Minister of Islamic Endowments and Guidance Affairs to religious tolerance." Bin Fahd image from
DJ Anas Canon guest lecture at USC Today - remarkablecurrent.blogspot.com: ". . . if you are on the USC's campus today, say hi to DJ Anas Canon. He's been invited back, after speaking at the School of Cinematic Arts last year, as a guest lecturer for the USC Center on Public Diplomacy at the Annenberg School at 2pm. Anas Canon will be speaking to graduate students about using music as a tool for diplomacy . . ."
A Great Book - Richard 'jimmy' Hill, Public and Cultural Diplomacy B: A reflective group blog by students on the Public and Cultural Diplomacy module at London Metropolitan University: "Public Diplomacy by Mark Leonard gives a good analysis of what Public Diplomacy is,
using examples of real events and knowledge from practitioners, it was published by the Foreign policy centre. I would recommend it to anyone looking for a better understanding of what Public diplomacy is and how it is used." Image from article
Second Tour Bidding - DiploJournal: "Although I’m still over a month away from arriving in Pakistan, the time has come for bidding the follow-on post. Because this next assignment will technically be my second tour (the year in Pakistan is taking the place of what was supposed to be the second year in Ottawa), I am going through what’s called directed bidding. For the last time in my career, we have the opportunity to peruse through a long list of open assignments, compile a list in order of preference, and leave it up to the gods, aka the Career Development Officers, to sort out. ... I then needed to figure out what training is required for each job I wanted to bid. Public affairs job in Bishkek, Kyrgystan? Factor in 8 months for Russian language fluency and a month and a half for public diplomacy tradecraft. Scratch a bunch more jobs that start too early or too late for the requisite training."
Group seeks to recall Brewer - Conflicted Voices: "About Nesima Aberra - Nesima is a sophomore journalism student at the Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication at Arizona State University,
also studying Global Studies, Arabic and Religion and Conflict. She is interested in in law, conflict resolution, strategic communication, social justice, digital media, public diplomacy, interfaith dialogue, human rights and peace-building. Nesima aspires to be a published author in both fiction and non-fiction one day." Image from
Public Communications Management (Online) at University of Stirling - bmmbox.com: "Course Description: This degree provides knowledge and skills in the areas of public affairs, advocacy, government relations, social influence, persuasive communication, rhetoric, speech writing, public diplomacy, project management, media relations and specialist skills in conflict resolution and negotiation."
Best Price 2K Furniture Designs E180B - Best Price 4 You: "You can read different things out of Mary Dudziaks book. As a student of public diplomacy my take away centered on the impact on foreign policy which the author does a good job investigating."
Washington’s Options on Libya - editorial, New York Times: The United States and its partners have taken important steps to pressure Colonel Qaddafi and his cronies to cede power, including an assets freeze and a travel ban.
We doubt that Colonel Qaddafi will ever get the message. But with enough pressure, his cronies and his military might abandon him — to save their own skins. It would be a disaster if Colonel Qaddafi managed to cling to power by butchering his own people. Image from
Pentagon Propaganda Sways US Opinion of Libya - grtv, tv.globalresearch.ca: The United States media has been portraying the conflict in Libya in different ways that has confused many and left people wondering what is really going on there. War Correspondent Keith Harmon Snow says there is a psychological operation performed by the Pentagon to persuade the American people through propaganda one way or the other.
The Prison That Won’t Go Away - Editorial, New York Times: Perhaps in the future, Congress will wake up and restore the rule of law to Guantánamo Bay, including the transfer of some prisoners to other countries. But, for now, the wound to the nation’s reputation remains unhealed. Below image from
Mr. Obama's Gitmo order is a half step in the right direction - Editorial, Washington Post: President Obama's executive order governing certain detainees at the Guantanamo Bay prison is both an admission of failure and a step in the right direction. Executive orders can be reversed on a whim, or by a future president. The country would be better served by a permanent legal framework that allows the president to detain certain terrorism suspects, subject to exacting judicial review and robust legal protections.
Hollywood’s War On America - Daniel Greenfield, eurasiareview.com: Hollywood is only one leg of a global empire. And even though Americans have rejected the long line of anti-war movies cranked out by its studios, they have made plenty of money overseas. As the foreign box office grows, the studios orient themselves toward a new environment becoming American in name only. American actors lend their talents to Anti-American movies made in the Muslim world.
Was Frankfurt Shooter Motivated By Hollywood’s Anti-war Propaganda? - John Nolte, bighollywood.breitbart.com.
Image from article
Drop 'hallyu bomb' in N. Korea - Cho Jae-hyon, koreatimes.co.kr: Leaflets flown in by North Korea used to be spotted in Seoul until the late 1970s. They were full of unsophisticated propaganda about how happily the people lived under the leadership of their “Great Leader” Kim Il-sung. The content of the leaflets, known as “ppira” in Korean, was ridiculous even in the eyes of elementary school children and didn’t serve to shake up the South at all. They eventually disappeared as the South outran the North in economic growth. And decades later, it is the South that is aggressively dropping “paper bombs” into the North. In a bid to spur the people in the most isolated country on the planet to rise up against their “Dear Leader,” the military and conservative civic groups have recently been flying column-like balloons stuffed with leaflets about pro-democracy protests in Egypt, Libya and other African nations.
However, the leaflets seem only to irritate the North to the point of hysteria, heightening unnecessary tension on the Korean Peninsula. To make North Korean people realize how they have been blindfolded by their “Dear Leader,” giving them more opportunities to taste this “decadent and capitalistic” South Korea through a culture wave or “hallyu” would be much more effective than sending leaflets. It is known that South Korean films and TV dramas are popular on the black market in the North. What if K-pop girl groups performed in Pyongyang and other cities there? It would melt away even the hearts of the top military brass. Cultural exchanges would have more profound impact on cracking open the tightly sealed society ― “hallyu bomb” not “paper bomb” will do the work. How many North Koreans know that Kim Jong-chol, second son of leader Kim Jong-il, is an avid fan of Eric Clapton? Image from article, with caption: The Korean Wave, dubbed Hallyu by Chinese journalists, is the export boom of Korean pop culture to Asia and the rest of the world. From TV dramas to music, video games and fashion, a substantial audience for Korean-made entertainment is deliberately being courted in countries like China, Japan, the South-East Asian nations, and even in North America, enabling South Korea to be one of the top ten cultural exporters in the world.
N. Korea posts interviews with defectors' families - Jung Ha-Won, AFP: North Korea Wednesday stepped up a propaganda campaign for the return of four
defectors to South Korea, releasing rare video footage online of interviews with families appealing for them to come home. Image from article, with caption: Kim Hyon-Suk (L), the wife of would-be defector Hong Yong-Hak, a 44-year-old man, and her daughter Hong Ji-hyang
China intensifies propaganda against "street politics" - monstersandcritics.com: Intensifying propaganda against anonymous calls for peaceful anti-government rallies, Chinese state media and officials Sunday said the 'street politics' of recent protest movements in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya would not succeed in China.
Bo Xilai’s Chongqing TV Station Plays ‘Red’ Propaganda in China - Michelle Yu, Epoch Times: Starting in March, Chongqing Satellite Television eliminated soap operas and advertising in its primetime 7:30pm and 11pm timeslot, playing instead paeans to communist ideology such as Mao era songs and movies, and government and public service ads.
The goal of Chongqing Satellite TV (CQTV) is to “focus on spreading communists’ advanced culture” a spokesperson from Chongqing Administration of Radio, Film and Television told Chinese media, “We will make sure we fully perform our responsibilities as a mainstream media in guiding public opinion… [and] educating the people.” The channel’s newly launched programs include a series featuring “touching stories” of how Communist Party officials connect with “the masses,” and reflects the “water-and-fish relationship” between officials and the public. Another new program is the Daily Red Song Show, a singing competition of communist propaganda songs. Image from
The next disinformation by Azerbaijani propaganda - Times.am: Azerbaijani media have spread information about a ten years child, who as if was killed by Armenian side. “The information about the child’s murder by Armenian troops isn’t true. The first departments of the Artsakh Republic Defense Army have kept the ceasefire regime both yesterday and on the other days as well. This is just the next disinformation by Azerbaijani propaganda,” Senor Hasratyan, speaker of NKR Defense Army told Panorama.am while commenting on the noted information.
Nazi papers welcome biathlon guests - The Local: Germany's News in English: Guests attending the opening of the 2011 World Biathlon Championships in Siberia got a surprise when they found Nazi propaganda among the hors d'oeuvres at the reception. Organizers thought they had a cute idea: liven up an event for the media by putting out a selection of old newspapers. Little did they know that among them were two pages from notorious Third Reich publications.
One was a reproduction from Der Angriff, or The Attack, a venomous Nazi Party journal published by propaganda chief Joseph Goebbels. The page was headlined "Reich Chancellor Hitler!" The other, from a 1944 edition of the Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, told readers "The invasion has begun." Once the gaffe was discovered, a slew of apologies came from the organizers at the Ugra-Classic Theatre Centre in the Siberian town of Khanty-Mansiysk, which has hosted the biathlon event for the past five years. Image from article
A Lesson on Propaganda - Larry Smith, bahamapundit.com: And now class, today we are going to talk about propaganda. Does anyone know what the word means? It derives from the Latin for propagate, which means to multiply, reproduce or transmit. In this case, we are talking about spreading information. What kind of information? Well, that is often hard to say. The key point to remember is that the information being presented will have an agenda. And in order to judge the value and quality of the information, you need to determine what that agenda is. In a nutshell, propaganda uses loaded messages to produce an emotional response in support of an often hidden objective.
Book Review: Sadistic broadcasts in World War II [Review of Axis Sally: The American Voice of Nazi Germany by Richard Lucas] - Joseph C. Goulden, The Washington Times: Arguably one of the more odious civilian figures to emerge from World War II was an American woman who broadcast radio propaganda aimed at U.S. troops. Her on-air name was "Midge," and in a chatty, folksy fashion she tried to portray herself as "the average American woman speaking to other American women, girl to girl." But GIs despised her as "Axis Sally."
Axis Sally's propaganda had several broad themes. A constant was that America entered the war because of "Roosevelt and his Jewish cohorts." Further, the "Jew-controlled media" ignored "the great role which Germany is playing in the future of the Western Continent," in opposing the spread of Soviet communism. She lamented the suffering of men who will find "that there is no job for cripples" after the war. Image from article
The Ministry of Propaganda in 1942 - Randall Bytwerk, German Propaganda Archive: "A year or so back, I bought a stack of Signal, a bi-monthly illustrated propaganda magazine the Nazis issued in about two dozen languages. The stack was missing one issue I particularly wanted from August 1942 — a story on Goebbels’s Ministry of Propaganda and Public Enlightenment. Just recently, I managed to secure the missing issue, and have added it to the GPA. It’s most interesting for a variety of pictures, two of which are below.
This a device that allowed Goebbels to interrupt all German radio programming to make an announcement.
Every day at 11:00 a.m., Goebbels held a conference with top propagandists." Images from article
ONE MORE QUOTATION FOR THE DAY
"Even beyond the organ of the Government set up to handle information about the United States and to explain our policies, what is important today is the interaction of groups, peoples, and cultures beyond national borders, influencing the way groups and peoples in other countries think about foreign affairs, react to our policies, and affect the policies of their respective governments.
"To connote this activity, we at the Fletcher School tried to find a name. I would have liked to call it 'propaganda.' It seemed like the nearest thing in the pure interpretation of the word to what we were doing. But 'propaganda' has always a pejorative connotation in this country. To describe the whole range of communications, information, and propaganda, we hit upon 'public diplomacy'."
--Edmund Gullion (1967); image from, with caption: L to R: Admiral Russel S. Berkey, Bao Dai, Edmund A. Gullion, Indonesian President Tran Van Huu consulting on issues.