Wednesday, August 2, 2017

Citizen and substate diplomacy; entry includes power point/slides presentation

Today I am uploading a presentation devoted to civil society and a general substate engagement in foreign relations as well as in shaping the global agenda. I think that what my students got out from this is especially the observation that everyone can be (or actually is) the ambasador of their respective countries. This was particularly important to them - international students. They saw that what they have to say matters in both positive and negative ways. They also saw that they can "be the change" and that a constructive engagement can take them far.

Citizen and substate diplomacy

  1. 1. Citizen and substate public diplomacy Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska Course on Public Diplomacy 2017
  2. 2. Poverty reduction An expanding global middle class Education and the gender gap Role of communication technologies Improving health A more conflicted ideological landscape The empowerment of individuals Source: Global Trends 2030, National Intelligence Council. Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska
  3. 3. The empowerment of individuals Source: Global Trends 2030, National Intelligence Council. Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska
  4. 4. distinct from the state and market spheres, but closely interrelated with them what matters for diplomacy: self-organized associations (not necessarily formal groups) that engage in collective action that cross state boundaries Setting the agenda Providing expertise or services the principled character – „the conscience of the world” „good groups” close to liberal Western norms or not necessarily? At least not groups for whom overthrowing the state is a primary aim or whose tactics include frequent and intentional use of violence against people Civil society Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska Kathryn Hochstetler
  5. 5. Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska More and more NGOs Source: party-giving-more-freedom-revolutionary-idea-enter-chinese-ngo
  6. 6. Research Outreach education Advocacy and norm promotion Agenda-setting Lobbying governments and intergovernmental organisations to adopt and police laws, policies and courses of action Implementing programs and delivering services and humanitarian assistance Monitoring the implementation of international commitments Direct action Engagement on various stages – from conceptualization through implementation to evaluation Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska What role can the civil society play in diplomacy Kathryn Hochstetler
  7. 7. When participants have a direct stake in the outcome or a personal ideological or expertise commitment Actors tend to specialise in the areas of intense preference, fighting for global attention and encouraging (insisting on?) states to act They are often ahead of the popular opinion in the causes they advocate for – and they also may shape public understanding of particular issues – „issue framing”, the power of narrative Grassroots groups, including women, sometimes find the world of global diplomacy to be a place there can be heard more clearly than they can at home they make the diplomatic agenda widened But: not only the most „popular” issues should be tackled by international community (go beyond the headlines) Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska Setting the agenda Kathryn Hochstetler
  8. 8. Civil society organisations/associations usually act as junior/minor negotiations partners of states or international organisations But: International Labour Organisation (ILO) makes labour and business equal partners with state representatives in all negotiations on labour issues International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) calls itself „a democratic membership union” – gov, NGO, scientist members as equals Sometimes they are not at all included, ecpecially in delicate or classified matters – and very often they have to fight for their seat at the table In such cases they focus on off-stage efforts to lobby governments – or they can physically destroy negotiations (the Seattle meeting of the WTO in 1999) Lobbying and/or/vs networking. Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska A voice in negotiations Kathryn Hochstetler
  9. 9. When new institutions, councils, boards are created When a systemic, regular evaluation is needed When regular reports/research is needed for, for instance, annual summits on certain issues When internationally agreed solutions need some support in some states to be implemented (pressing parliaments, governments, preparing legislation, etc.) When changes in daily behaviour have to be promoted (education, public diplomacy, media) When actions of states are not demanded or possible; replacement for governmental diplomacy, i.e. the role of the International Committee of the Red Cross and the Red Crescent Movement in conflict situations Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska The implementation of diplomatic agreements Kathryn Hochstetler
  10. 10. Established in 1961 as an international fundraising organisation to work in collaboration with conservation groups and bring substantial financial support to the conservation movement on a worldwide scale, now one of the largest indemendent conservation organizarions, supported by 5 mln people and present in over 100 countries Supported and funded by celebrities: Leonardo di Caprio, Christian Bale, Kristen Bell, Gisele Bundchen, David Attenborough, Lars Ulrich, Andy Murray, Lucy Lawless and many others Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance (1971), Project Tiger (since 1972), TRAFFIC programme of IUCN, devoted to monitor trade in wildlife and of wildlife products (1976), the World Conservation Strategy with UNEP (1980) – etc. Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska World Wildlife Fund - WWF Source:
  11. 11. A nonprofit, nongovernmental human rights organisation established in 1978 400 staff members around the globe Country experts, lawyers, journalists and academis Produces reports and briefings (over 100 annually), works with the media, conducts targeted advocacy in the UN, the African Union, the European Union and others, as well as financial institutionas and corporations presses for changes in policy toward the protection of human rights and justice Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska Human Rights Watch Source:
  12. 12. A UK-based organisation operating in various countries accross the world through „a confederation” of 17 Oxfam organisations, 10000 staff and 50000 interns/volunteers Devoted to human rights advocacy, fighting against injucstice, inequalities and poverty 70 years of experience Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska Oxfam Source: attachments/anual_report_2015_-_2016.pdf
  13. 13. Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska Source: attachments/anual_report_2015_-_2016.pdf
  14. 14. There are two main fields of the cooperation/relationship between the state and diasporas: Care/protection Lobbying/promotion Diasporas merge with local populations and keep connections with their home countries They can care for their roots, history and culture – and they can support contemporary economic and political affairs/causes Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska Diasporas
  15. 15. Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska Polish diaspora in the world Source: kiej_obecnosci_w_swiecie/
  16. 16. Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska Wanna learn Polish? Source: nia/atlas_polskiej_obecnosci_w_swiecie/
  17. 17. The empowerment of individuals Source: Global Trends 2030, National Intelligence Council. Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska
  18. 18. Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska Map of Polish embassies and consulates (2014) Source: a-d0c4-425a-8647-02ae7b4128f8:JCR
  19. 19. First corporations of transnational character were established in colonies and dealt with agriculture, mining and fuels – now they operate in almost every business sector and they are located everywhere No state is autonomous economically – they do not have total control over their currencies and their foreign trade no control or 100% surveillance over capital flows (a growing risk of currency crises) Corporations are able to avoid or diminish taxes, they are efficient in escaping controls and surveillance The structure of state’s control over corporations causes complex conflicts between govs when regulations have exterritorial range If regulations are to be successful, they have to be universal/global (a huge space for lobbying, also from the NGO side) Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska Transnational/global corporations Peter Willetts
  20. 20. More pragmatic (policy), less ideological (politics) than states Economically vibrant and innovative, interested in financial, human, intellectual capital and technological flows Active in terms of branding, image building, recognition – and also in finding solutions to urban problems and challenges (living conditions are key) Work rather in networks than in structured, formalised organisations They can support governments – and they can work against them or distance themselves from govs Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska Global cities and their diplomacy
  21. 21. Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska Map of global cities Source:
  22. 22. Cities make up 42 out of 100 biggest economies Source: economies?_ga=1.60274733.167263611.1470045030 Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska
  23. 23. How big are cities? Source: economies?_ga=1.60274733.167263611.1470045030 Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska
  24. 24. Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska World urbanisation prospects Source:
  25. 25. What does the term „the empowerment of individuals” mean? How do you think, does civil society help foreign policy and global governance? What role do the diasporas play in foreign policies of their home and receiving countries? Why are consular affairs important for the image and the nation brand of a country? What kind of a role do global cities play in international relations? Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska Questions for discussion
  26. 26. Hochstetler Kathryn, Civil Society, in: Cooper Andrew F., Heine Jorge, Thakur Ramesh (red.), The Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy, Oxford University Press 2013, p. 176-188; Willetts Peter, Transnational actors and international organisations in global politics, in: Baylis John, „The Globalization of World Politics”, 2011; Riordan Shaun, Dialogue-based Public Diplomacy: a New Foreign Policy Paradigm?, w: Melissen Jan (red.), The New Public Diplomacy. Soft Power in International Relations, Palgrave MacMillan 2005, str. 180-195; Lenihan Ronan, How to Work with Public Opinion, w: Stetter Rebecca, Lee Sunkyoung (red.), How to Win Hearts and Minds?, Asia-Europe Foundation Public Diplomacy Handbook, Asia-Europe Foundation 2016, str. 112-130: dbook.pdf Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska Literature for the presentation and further reading
  27. 27. Thank you very much for your attention! Let’s stay in touch: a-rybka-iwa%C5%84ska-08856b133/ Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska

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