The main aim of this paper is to define eDiplomacy and its three ideal-types of standardisation, power, and visibility and to analyse digital diplomacy’s application in practice by state and non-state actors. The questions this paper will try to answer are: 1) What are eDiplomacy and ediplomats? 2) To what extent can the practices of eDiplomacy be applied to the traditional and newly emerging diplomatic actors in terms of standardisation, power, and visibility? In this paper, e-diplomacy and its activities will be viewed as inherent to the practices of public diplomacy. However, the practice of digital diplomacy is not limited to that of public diplomacy. One of the reasons is that the reduction of e-diplomacy to public diplomacy misses much of the power and capacity that ICTs can potentially provide (Holmes, 2013, p. 5). Therefore, this paper will contribute to the academic field of digital diplomacy by expanding the prevailing framework in the literature on digital diplomacy. The arguments in this paper are based on the assumption that the hierarchical mentality and outmoded practices of traditional diplomatic actors no longer fit the reality of international relations. Consequentially, the old actors become marginalised by newly emerging ediplomats. In order to stay relevant in the field, diplomatic actors inevitably have to change their ways of thinking about digital technologies. Digital diplomacy and its implications on standardisation, power, and visibility allow diplomats to become active knowledge producers and influential public figures, thus bringing the diplomatic game to a new level. show less
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Author keywords: diplomacy, ediplomacy, digital diplomacy, social media, Facebook, Twitter, ICT, public diplomacy, diplomat, ediplomat, networks, standardisation, power, visibility, Lithuania, Lithuanian, MFA, Leonidas Donskis, Donskis, ministry of foreign affairs, Neumann, Magalhaes, Satow, international relations, case study, qualitative, Russia, Ukraine, Israel, security, online
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A Princeton PhD, was a US diplomat for over 20 years, mostly in Eastern Europe, and was promoted to the Senior Foreign Service in 1997. For the Open World Leadership Center, he speaks with
its delegates from Europe/Eurasia on the topic, "E Pluribus Unum? What Keeps the United States United." Affiliated with Georgetown University for over ten years, he shares ideas with students about public diplomacy.
The papers of his deceased father -- poet and diplomat John L. Brown -- are stored at Georgetown University Special Collections at the Lauinger Library. They are manuscript materials valuable to scholars interested in post-WWII U.S.-European cultural relations.
This blog is dedicated to him, Dr. John L. Brown, a remarkable linguist/humanist who wrote in the Foreign Service Journal (1964) -- years before "soft power" was ever coined -- that "The CAO [Cultural Affairs Officer] soon comes to realize that his job is really a form of love-making and that making love is never really successful unless both partners are participating."