Saturday, July 22, 2017

Diplomacy today and tomorrow. The role of public diplomacy

, Head of Institutional Cooperation Unit, Department of Foreign Policy Strategy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Poland,

 Diplomacy today and tomorrow. The role of public diplomacy

  1. This year I started developing a new portfolio - a teaching career (whilst remaining a fully devoted civil servant and diplomat, of course :). I wrote an authorial programme on public diplomacy, dedicated to students of the 6th semester of BA studies in international relations. My programme was presented in the form of presentations and was aimed at stimulating discussions among students. The discussions were dynamic, vivid and very inspirational. This is why I wanted to show my presentations to a wider audience. This is the first one. I hope you will find it interesting and worth giving me some tips and hints on how to make further presentations as attractive to various audiences, as possible. Looking foward to your feedback and any questions you may have!

  2. 1. Diplomacy today and tomorrow. The role of public diplomacy in contemporary foreign affairs. Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska Course on Public Diplomacy 2017

  3. 2. Megatrends  Revolution 4.0  Ageing/demographic explosion  Urbanisation  Climate change  (anti)globalisation  Shifts in economic power/widening and deepening inequalities The age of disruption in foreign policy (and all other public policies)  the twenty-first century world of networks, where the measure of a state’s power is its ability to turn connectivity into innovation, growth (prosperity) and security (Anne-Marie Slaughter) Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska

  4. 3. Three revolutions  Communication: the Internet and global news networks  Politics: transformation (of many) from autocracies to democracies, from passive attitudes to participation  International Relations: much more than political agenda, much more than traditional club diplomacy Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska Eytan Gilboa

  5. 4. Key characteristics  Much more adaptation, much less exceptionalism  Much wider dynamic of agency  More time-sensitive  A greater technical orientation – specialisation  Blended with domestic policy-making and political/societal demands about governance – great importance of the coordination  Integrative Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy, p. 2.

  6. 5. Club: the Congress of Vienna Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska Source:

  7. 6. Network: United Nations Climate Change Conference, Paris 2015  Participation of the EU and 195 countries  But also non-state parties were involved (examples):  the new Transformative Actions Program (TAP) intended to progress local and subnational action.  at the World Summit of Regions for Climate (WSRC) in Paris 2014, Arnold Schwarzenegger, the Founder of R20, invited a coalition of governments, businesses and investors to sign a draft "Paris Declaration" at World Climate Summit in Lima 2014, World Green Economy Summit 2015 in Dubai and COP21.  C40 summit of mayors  Indigenous peoples efforts*  Women's Earth and Climate Action Network seeking "powerful submissions by worldwide women" sharing "stories, struggles, solutions and action plans ... [a] women's climate justice mobilization„. Source: *check on the activities of Leonardo di Caprio, watch „the Revenant”!  Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska

  8. 7. Club vs. network diplomacy Number of players Structure Form Transparency Main purpose Club Few Hierarchy Mostly written Low Sign agreements Network Many Flatter Mostly oral High Increase flows Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy, p. 23.

  9. 8. Key steps  diplomacy has to integrate change and continuity, different agendas and arenas, but also provide and sustain coherence and coordination  an effective, authentic, credible public diplomacy  a growing importance of consular affairs and citizen diplomacy  diplomats have to develop in the field of long-term analysis, strategic planning and… social skills! Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska Hocking Brian, Melissen Jan, Riordan Shaun, Sharp Paul, „Futures for diplomacy. Integrative diplomacy in the 21st Century”, pp. 5-7.

  10. 9. MFAs of the future  Operational  Expertise-ready  Network and partnership oriented  Capable of creating whole-of-gov alignment  Skilled in economic statecraft  Domestically engaged  Flexible and resilient  Results-driven  Technology-enabled Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska Source: Futures for diplomacy. Integrative Diplomacy in the 21st Century, p. 63.

  11. 10. The importance of public diplomacy  Diplomatic engagement with people  Winning hearts and minds, building relations  Managing policy networks  Caring for and expanding networks  A metaphor for the democratization of diplomacy  „polylateral diplomacy” Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska „Diplomacy is no longer a stiff waltz among states alone, but a jazzy dance of colourful coalitions – and public diplomacy is at the heart of its current rebooting” – Jan Melissen, Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy.

  12. 11. Public diplomacy as an official policy translating soft power resources into action Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska Hard power versus soft power Hard power – sticks and carrots Type Military Economic Soft power Behaviours Coercion, deterrence Inducement, coercion Attraction, agenda- setting, co-optation Resources Force, threats Sanctions, payments Values, culture, policies, institutions Government policies Coercive diplomacy, war, alliance Aid, bribes Public diplomacy, bilateral and multilateral diplomacy Eytan Gilboa J.S. Nye Jr: Smart power means learning better how to combine or balance hard and soft power.  Not only PR, but also the projection of power.

  13. 12. A framework for analysis Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska Range Immediate Intermediate Long Time Hours/days Weeks/months Years Purpose Reactive Proactive Relationship Media/public opinion News management Strategic communication Building favorable conditions Government Closely linked Partially linked Remotely linked PD instruments Advocacy, international broadcasting, e- PD International PR, corporate diplomacy, diaspora PD Cultural diplomacy, exchanges, branding Eytan Gilboa The term „public diplomacy” was invented by Edmund Gullion in 1965, but Alliance Française was set up already in 1883. ( Gilboa Eytan, Searching for a Theory of Public Diplomacy, p. 73.

  14. 13. Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska Public diplomacy strategies Hierarchical Integrative Aims Shaping images of the „sender” Influencing policy agendas by shaping policy attitudes in international environments Methods Unidirectional information flows Developing dialogues with stakeholders Developing collaborative policy networks Hocking Brian, Melissen Jan, Riordan Shaun, Sharp Paul, „Futures for diplomacy. Integrative diplomacy in the 21st Century”, str. 39.  The empowerment of the public  Polylateral diplomacy = state to non-state diplomacy = gov’s diplomatic cooperation with transnational civil society actors

  15. 14. Questions to students  What is the role and nature of diplomacy in the 21st century?  What has changed/has been changing and with what consequences?  To what extend is the growing diversity and number of actors/stakeholders challenging?  Is it possible to sustain secrecy as one of the characteristics of diplomacy?  What should and what should not go public when diplomacy is concerned?  Where do you see the difference between public diplomacy and public relations?  How does public diplomacy help a state in realising its vital, national interests?  Which countries have a good image, which should do some homework in this field? Do images differ across the regions and audiences?  What are the main obstacles a country has to tackle if it wants to succeed in shaping/implementing its public diplomacy strategy/image/brand? Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska

  16. 15. Literature used for the presentation and further reading  PwC Report Five Megatrends And Their Implication for Global Defense & Security centre/publications/five-megatrends.html  John Naisbitt, „Megatrends. Ten New Directions Transforming Our Lives”  Anne-Marie Slaughter, America’s Edge, in Foreign Affairs 88:1 (Jan/Feb 2009)  Anne-Marie Slaughter, The Chessboard & The Web. Strategies of Connection in a networked world, 2017  Brian White, „Diplomacy”, in: Baylis John, „The Globalization of World Politics”, 2011  Brian Hocking, Jan Melissen, Shaun Riordan, Paul Sharp, „Futures for diplomacy. Integrative diplomacy in the 21st Century”  Andrew F. Cooper, Jorge Heine, Ramesh Thakur, „Introduction: The Challenges of 21st-Century Diplomacy”, in: Andrew F. Cooper, Jorge Heine, Ramesh Thakur, „The Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy”  Eytan Gilboa, Searching for a Theory of Public Diplomacy, 2008:  Jan Melissen, Public Diplomacy, in: Andrew F. Cooper, Jorge Heine, Ramesh Thakur (ed. by), The Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy, Oxford University Press 2013, p. 436-452  Jan Melissen (ed. by), The New Public Diplomacy. Soft Power in International Relations, Palgrave Macmillan, 2005 – Introduction and part I.  Henry Kissinger, „Diplomacy”, „The World Order”. Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska

  17. 16. Thank you very much for your attention! Let’s stay in touch! a-rybka-iwa%C5%84ska-08856b133/ Katarzyna Rybka-Iwańska

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